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Sp14 FW 311-802 Transformers Cognitive Restructuring

Page history last edited by Students 6 years, 3 months ago





(Michelle Valandingham)


(Adam Stradling)


   Cognitive restructuring is the process of replacing maladaptive thought patterns with constructive thoughts and beliefs. By identifying dysfunctional thoughts, beliefs or behaviors and learning to challenge the validity of those, we can then produce more adaptive, more positive alternatives. You can learn to adjust your perception of a situation to see the positive. Often our perception of a situation (or the world in general) changes to match the way we feel at that time. Why not then deliberately replace harmful feelings with productive ones and watch as our worldview transforms?


   In this Wiki page, we attempt to show how replacing negative self-talk with positive self-talk actually creates more positive outcomes. Part of this process is learning to recognize when we let negative thoughts or emotions intrude. Rather than saying, "I'm stupid because my grades are falling behind," you might say, "Is this rational or irrational? Perhaps my poor grades are from a lack of study or poor work ethic. Perhaps if I get some tutoring or increase my time management skills, I would have time for school work as well as family/work/etc." This replaces the maladaptive thought ("I'm stupid") with a constructive thought ("I'm not stupid, and as I make changes I will see an improvement in my grades." 


   Another example of cognitive restructuring, this time in a therapy setting, is Eye Movement Desentization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. This is an integrative psychotherapy approach where the patient is instructed to recall negative thought, images or body sensations. They then move his or her eyes back and forth while the therapist moves their fingers in the same way, or the therapist uses some other type of bilateral stimulation. This assists most patients to reprocess old negative self-views or traumatic memories and create new, less threatening associations. This becomes an example of cognitive restructuring in action, literally rewriting old negative beliefs with new positive beliefs.

(Adam Stradling)


(Michelle Valandingham)




Marcus Antonius

(Michelle Valandingham)


“If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is not due to the thing itself, but to your estimate of it; and this you have the power to revoke at any moment.” 
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations

(Adam Stradling)



(Michelle Valandingham)


“To change ourselves effectively, we first had to change our perceptions.” 
―Stephen R. Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

(Adam Stradling)



*How to make stress your friend*


(Adam Stradling)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RcGyVTAoXEU&feature=player_embedded (Michelle Valandingham)




In order to reconstruct certain cognitive behaviors, therapy can be the key to a better outcome.

*Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - CBT*

(Michelle Valandingham)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=95SNt21Jyyk  (Michelle Valandingham)



Could "Shoulding on Yourself" cause you to have a bad day??

*Quit Shoulding On Yourself*

(Michelle Valandingham)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD2Q09n2hR8&feature=player_embedded (Michelle Valandingham)





There are many resources available that many may be unaware of from the web, books, journals, and article in magazines which can help with certain behaviors. In the links below you will find an abundant amount of information pertaining to Cognitive Restructuring which can help with a large number of situations the we may all experience at some point in our life. Please explore though and find new information and ways on improving the negatives in one's life. Cognitive restructuring is a great tool to restructure the negative and pull every bit of positive out of the particular situation. Learning how to handle difficult behaviors and learning new ways to change those behaviors is a wonderful tool which can allow individuals to change the negative life style into the positive one which was always dreamed of. Please take advantage of these great resources and explore your new positive. (Michelle Valandingham)






*This journal article reviews the use of cognitive restructuring in inmates to reduce recidivism (the repetition of undesirable behavior following consequence of that behavior) with positive results. (Adam Stradling)

Baro, A. (1999). Effects of a Cognitive Restructuring Program on Inmate Institutional Behavior. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 26(4) 466-484 (Adam Stradling)

*This article investigates older adults ability to learn and implement cognitive restructuring. (Adam Stradling)

Johnco, C. (2013) The role of cognitive flexibility in cognitive restructuring skill acquisition among older adults. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 27 (6) 576-584 (Adam Stradling) 


*This journal is about the role of cognitive restructuring in forgiveness and how forgiveness relates to an individuals health and well-being. (Adam Stradling)

Cioni, P. (2007) Forgiveness, Cognitive Restructuring and Object Transformation. Journal of Religion and Health. 46(3) 385-397. (Adam Stradling) 


* This journal is about a case study to see if cognitive restructuring is effective in individuals with PTSD - the results will amaze you. (Michelle Valandingham)

Marks, I. (1998). Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder by Exposure and/or Cognitive Restructuring: A Controlled Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(4), 317-325. (Michelle Valandingham)

http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1150003 (Michelle Valandingham)


*This journal is also a case study on individuals with PTSD and has multiple tables and a break down of the cause from the persons PTSD and how cognitive restructuring helped in each category. (Michelle Valandingham)

Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M., Hackmann, A., Grey, N., Liness, S., Wild, J., et al. (2010). Intensive Cognitive Therapy For PTSD: A Feasibility Study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(04), 383-398. (Michelle Valandingham)

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=7818664&jid=BCP&volumeId=38&issueId=04&aid=7818662&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession= (Michelle Valandingham)


* This journal is a brief discussion on whether pharmacotherapy is or is not better that cognitive restructuring and their reasons. What do you think? (Michelle Valandingham)

Palinkas, L. A. (1998). Exposure or cognitive restructuring were more effective than relaxation in treating post-traumatic stress disorder. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 1(4), 114-114.  (Michelle Valandingham)

http://ebmh.bmj.com/content/1/4/114.full (Michelle Valandingham)



  • Heimberg, R. G., Dodge, C. S., Hope, D. A., Kennedy, C. R., Zollo, L. J., & Becker, R. E. (1990). Cognitive behavioral group treatment for social phobia: Comparison with a credible placebo control. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(1), 1-23. (Michelle Valandingham)


  • Cordery, H., Corstorphine, E., Hinrichsen, H., Lawson, R., Mountford, V., & Russell, K. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders: A comprehensive treatment guideCambridge,, UK: Cambridge University Press. (Michelle Valandingham)


  • White, J. R., & Freeman, A. S. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral group therapy: For specific problems and populations. American Psychological Association. (Michelle Valandingham)


  • Mueser,K.T., Rosenberg, S. D., Rosenberg, H. J. (2009). Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Special Populations: A Cognitive Restructuring Program. American Psychological Association. (Adam Stradling)


  • Ellis, A. (2011). The ABC's of Cognitive Restructuring. New Harbinger Publications. (Adam Stradling)


  • McMullin, R. (1975). Talk Sense to Yourself: A guide to cognitive restructuring therapy. Sauria Press. (Adam Stradling) 



Reflection Summary

I chose cognitive restructuring as my first practice, I found that it is very interesting to take a second to absorb your surrounding conflict and weigh-out the correct way to handle yourself within the conflict. Although I was finding it very hard to be in a conflict that angered me every week, as I am a very mellow person. But about 4 weeks in I recognized a very large flaw of myself, I am extremely competitive. So I decided that I would use cognitive restructuring to change this about myself. I wanted to be young again and enjoy games for the fun rather than winning every time. As any new practice this came slowly for me, I recognized my issue and worked to change it. Proudly to say, I am still using cognitive restructuring to keep this flaw of over competitiveness within range.  I believe that I am a better person now that I can control my competitiveness, I feel that I am more fun to be with and I am having more fun as well! Professional applications of cognitive restructuring are rather endless; using it in the work place will lead to a stronger and better work environment. Also in group meetings, cognitive restructuring can help make the group more cohesive and work better together as there is not tension within the group; this will lead to a more efficient group. Personally, as I stated, it can help us change bad habits or ideas that we find as flaws. Also controlling how we act in a situation can be granted to cognitive restructuring, we must weigh all options and notice the surroundings to act justly and politely. (Chris Noel)






Only You Can Make That Change!








Comments (15)

Students said

at 7:34 pm on Feb 14, 2014

This is an excellent TED talk on stress and how a little cognitive restructuring can change the physical and emotional effects of stress. Worth a listen.

Students said

at 10:06 pm on Feb 14, 2014

Hi Cognitive Restructuring Team,

I like this video clip because it changes our perception on stress. Great taste! I also like the way your team put this video first so that it draw more attention from readers on your wiki.

One recommendation is adding an abstract to the video so that readers may get an idea what is talking about even before clicking on it. Another recommendation is seeing more teamwork here. : )

Qian Wilcox

Students said

at 12:42 pm on Feb 16, 2014

Hi students - great start to your Wiki! I hope you are all collaborating and have read all of Debby's instructions posted in BBLearn (Course content in several places) as well as the Wiki FrontPage (and related links which provide examples). Qian, thanks again for your great remarks to your classmates. Love the clip.

Jacqui :)

Students said

at 3:50 pm on Feb 20, 2014

Hi Team CR - how is the collaboration coming along? I don't see any additional progress to your Wiki for a few days.

Jacqui :)

Students said

at 10:00 am on Feb 24, 2014

Hi! Just checking in to make sure your collaboration is coming along! Be sure to write to me with any questions via the BBLearn e-mail so I can respond sooner. This is such an amazing practice to share with your viewers because often people really don't know what it is. Can't wait to see your research!

Jacqui :)

Students said

at 6:36 pm on Mar 7, 2014

I really like how you two open up your page, it's really welcoming. The quotes and visuals keep my interest and make me want to continue reading further in your wiki.
I also like each of these quotes very powerful sayings; good job!

Also, you two picked good you-tube clips. I did like how it's available directly on your wiki page for viewing but maybe providing link as well would be nice.
A short summary or some information about the journals or books would help improve the wiki just so individuals know what they are going to open up ahead of time, but other than that I really did enjoy your wiki page.

Great job you two!
-Zufane A. Tadesse

Students said

at 3:56 am on Apr 18, 2014

Thank you for your feedback. I have included the links so all options are now available. I also provided a short summary. Great idea. Thanks, Michelle Valandingham

Students said

at 1:50 pm on Mar 8, 2014

Students, Debby will provide additional Wiki info on Monday in Course Content/Classroom. Please do NOT make changes at this time based on any student comments. Thanks!

Jacqui :)

Students said

at 11:19 am on Mar 16, 2014

I really like how in your opening statement you say this is what we are going to show you in this wiki. You put that out their in a very simple yet effective way. Then you provide an example on how we do these kinda of things in everyday settings. Good opening statements. The visuals on this page are great it gives great ideas.
I like the videos but maybe giving them a heading might make them look more managed. For some reasons the website, books and journal look so small because of the fonts size I guess. Or it might be because all of your other visuals are presented so nicely.
Really good job- Benjamin Gray

Students said

at 4:17 am on Apr 18, 2014

Thank you for your suggestions. I agree after reviewing it. I hope the changes I made have made it look more appealing.
Thanks, Michelle Valandingham

Students said

at 3:47 pm on Mar 27, 2014

I liked watching all the different videos that you guys offered for us to watch! Also the abstract was very well done and insightful, I practiced cognitive restructuring for the first half of the transformational practices and I found it very beneficial to my overall health. I suggest making each category it's own hyperlink to help make the page look cleaner and easier to navigate. The artwork that you guys used was very good and helped make the page unique to your own practice. Great job on your wiki, I enjoyed reading and watching all the elements given! (Chris Noel)

Students said

at 10:02 pm on Mar 27, 2014

You have a great looking page!! I really liked all of the videos, especially the one by Kelly McGonigal. I also like the picture of the cat that sees himself as a lion! I think having humor in most things is essential. This page is also extremely organized and very easy to view and I liked the idea of using the bullet points on the books and websites; I think it makes it easier on the reader. The one thing I noticed that could need changing is that the intro might need some references, and although it is hard to criticize a page that looks so amazing, if I did have to make one more change it might be to take the large red words used for the quotes and change them to a warmer color.
(Melanie Torchia)

Students said

at 4:23 am on Apr 18, 2014

Thank you for your tips. I hope the color is less bold and more comforting.
Thanks, Michelle

Students said

at 2:38 pm on Mar 31, 2014

This did not seem very structured, there were different colors of font and it just seemed kind of short compared ot the other wiki assignments. The videos were very good and offered different perspectives and opinions. I really like artwork as well. it is just that the font was hard to read at some points and could use a little tweaking! (Taylor Rose krigbaum)

Students said

at 8:06 pm on Mar 31, 2014

Excellent choice of images, it really grabs your attention. I also found your abstract very well written. Some suggestions would be the organization of the articles and information, it was a little difficult to follow. But great page!

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