Sp14 FW 311-802 Transformers Cognitive Restructuring





(Michelle Valandingham)


(Adam Stradling)


   Cognitive restructuring is the process of replacing maladaptive thought patterns with constructive thoughts and beliefs. By identifying dysfunctional thoughts, beliefs or behaviors and learning to challenge the validity of those, we can then produce more adaptive, more positive alternatives. You can learn to adjust your perception of a situation to see the positive. Often our perception of a situation (or the world in general) changes to match the way we feel at that time. Why not then deliberately replace harmful feelings with productive ones and watch as our worldview transforms?


   In this Wiki page, we attempt to show how replacing negative self-talk with positive self-talk actually creates more positive outcomes. Part of this process is learning to recognize when we let negative thoughts or emotions intrude. Rather than saying, "I'm stupid because my grades are falling behind," you might say, "Is this rational or irrational? Perhaps my poor grades are from a lack of study or poor work ethic. Perhaps if I get some tutoring or increase my time management skills, I would have time for school work as well as family/work/etc." This replaces the maladaptive thought ("I'm stupid") with a constructive thought ("I'm not stupid, and as I make changes I will see an improvement in my grades." 


   Another example of cognitive restructuring, this time in a therapy setting, is Eye Movement Desentization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. This is an integrative psychotherapy approach where the patient is instructed to recall negative thought, images or body sensations. They then move his or her eyes back and forth while the therapist moves their fingers in the same way, or the therapist uses some other type of bilateral stimulation. This assists most patients to reprocess old negative self-views or traumatic memories and create new, less threatening associations. This becomes an example of cognitive restructuring in action, literally rewriting old negative beliefs with new positive beliefs.

(Adam Stradling)


(Michelle Valandingham)




Marcus Antonius

(Michelle Valandingham)


“If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is not due to the thing itself, but to your estimate of it; and this you have the power to revoke at any moment.” 
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations

(Adam Stradling)



(Michelle Valandingham)


“To change ourselves effectively, we first had to change our perceptions.” 
―Stephen R. Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

(Adam Stradling)



*How to make stress your friend*


(Adam Stradling)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RcGyVTAoXEU&feature=player_embedded (Michelle Valandingham)




In order to reconstruct certain cognitive behaviors, therapy can be the key to a better outcome.

*Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - CBT*

(Michelle Valandingham)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=95SNt21Jyyk  (Michelle Valandingham)



Could "Shoulding on Yourself" cause you to have a bad day??

*Quit Shoulding On Yourself*

(Michelle Valandingham)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD2Q09n2hR8&feature=player_embedded (Michelle Valandingham)





There are many resources available that many may be unaware of from the web, books, journals, and article in magazines which can help with certain behaviors. In the links below you will find an abundant amount of information pertaining to Cognitive Restructuring which can help with a large number of situations the we may all experience at some point in our life. Please explore though and find new information and ways on improving the negatives in one's life. Cognitive restructuring is a great tool to restructure the negative and pull every bit of positive out of the particular situation. Learning how to handle difficult behaviors and learning new ways to change those behaviors is a wonderful tool which can allow individuals to change the negative life style into the positive one which was always dreamed of. Please take advantage of these great resources and explore your new positive. (Michelle Valandingham)






*This journal article reviews the use of cognitive restructuring in inmates to reduce recidivism (the repetition of undesirable behavior following consequence of that behavior) with positive results. (Adam Stradling)

Baro, A. (1999). Effects of a Cognitive Restructuring Program on Inmate Institutional Behavior. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 26(4) 466-484 (Adam Stradling)

*This article investigates older adults ability to learn and implement cognitive restructuring. (Adam Stradling)

Johnco, C. (2013) The role of cognitive flexibility in cognitive restructuring skill acquisition among older adults. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 27 (6) 576-584 (Adam Stradling) 


*This journal is about the role of cognitive restructuring in forgiveness and how forgiveness relates to an individuals health and well-being. (Adam Stradling)

Cioni, P. (2007) Forgiveness, Cognitive Restructuring and Object Transformation. Journal of Religion and Health. 46(3) 385-397. (Adam Stradling) 


* This journal is about a case study to see if cognitive restructuring is effective in individuals with PTSD - the results will amaze you. (Michelle Valandingham)

Marks, I. (1998). Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder by Exposure and/or Cognitive Restructuring: A Controlled Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(4), 317-325. (Michelle Valandingham)

http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1150003 (Michelle Valandingham)


*This journal is also a case study on individuals with PTSD and has multiple tables and a break down of the cause from the persons PTSD and how cognitive restructuring helped in each category. (Michelle Valandingham)

Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M., Hackmann, A., Grey, N., Liness, S., Wild, J., et al. (2010). Intensive Cognitive Therapy For PTSD: A Feasibility Study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(04), 383-398. (Michelle Valandingham)

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=7818664&jid=BCP&volumeId=38&issueId=04&aid=7818662&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession= (Michelle Valandingham)


* This journal is a brief discussion on whether pharmacotherapy is or is not better that cognitive restructuring and their reasons. What do you think? (Michelle Valandingham)

Palinkas, L. A. (1998). Exposure or cognitive restructuring were more effective than relaxation in treating post-traumatic stress disorder. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 1(4), 114-114.  (Michelle Valandingham)

http://ebmh.bmj.com/content/1/4/114.full (Michelle Valandingham)










Reflection Summary

I chose cognitive restructuring as my first practice, I found that it is very interesting to take a second to absorb your surrounding conflict and weigh-out the correct way to handle yourself within the conflict. Although I was finding it very hard to be in a conflict that angered me every week, as I am a very mellow person. But about 4 weeks in I recognized a very large flaw of myself, I am extremely competitive. So I decided that I would use cognitive restructuring to change this about myself. I wanted to be young again and enjoy games for the fun rather than winning every time. As any new practice this came slowly for me, I recognized my issue and worked to change it. Proudly to say, I am still using cognitive restructuring to keep this flaw of over competitiveness within range.  I believe that I am a better person now that I can control my competitiveness, I feel that I am more fun to be with and I am having more fun as well! Professional applications of cognitive restructuring are rather endless; using it in the work place will lead to a stronger and better work environment. Also in group meetings, cognitive restructuring can help make the group more cohesive and work better together as there is not tension within the group; this will lead to a more efficient group. Personally, as I stated, it can help us change bad habits or ideas that we find as flaws. Also controlling how we act in a situation can be granted to cognitive restructuring, we must weigh all options and notice the surroundings to act justly and politely. (Chris Noel)






Only You Can Make That Change!